The Potential of Stem Cells Illimited
Recently Bristol University managed to create stem cells with illimited red globules, more effective than the ones gathered from blood banks, adapting to any necessity, in the wait of being used in humans. For this, they use grown stem cells to divide into massive form inside the organism and create red globules.
Each stem cell created by the organism produces approximately 50,000 red globules in their lifespan, and the idea is to get a benefit of this.
Bristol and NHS Blood and Transplant managed to create immortal grown stem cells for clinical use.
Cultivated Red Globules
In the whole world, there’s an urgent necessity of alternative blood globules products to combat Leukemia (blood cancer). These cultivated red globules help to reduce the risk of contracting infectious diseases to patients.
After many years of hard work, scientists managed a way to offer valuable alternatives in the patient’s recuperation with blood deficiency covered by science, hematolytic, basic hematopoietic organs encompassing the bone marrow, lymphatic nodes, and vessels.
hematologists scientists have been working for many years in the creation of red globules. Offering an alternative to blood donation to treat patients.
This biological advancement opens the doors to the people with hard to get, rare blood types. For example, the negative “RH blood type”, is a very hard to get a strain, only found the international “Blood Group Reference Laboratory” in the United Kingdom, a blood bank holding many rare types of blood strains, that only 5% of the world’s population has.
It’s quite important to say, that the most common blood type is the “positive O RH or negative O RH, Positive A or Negative B”.
According to the England numbers, at least 1,5 million units are required annually to cover their country needs, that’s why the NHS Blood and Transplant institution save lives in a philanthropic way. Including, raising awareness in the whole world to combat any new type of diseases silently growing, think of it as strength in numbers, getting enough blood samples in this bank will be of great help.
Increased Demand for Red Cell Blood Products
There is increased demand for red cell blood products due to a shortage of donated blood. The transmission of infectious diseases from blood transfusions and adverse reactions associated with alloimmunization leads to problems with the current blood supply. Moreover, there are rare blood groups with very limited supply making unlimited red cell supply a real need.
Culture red blood cells have filled this void by producing a massive number of red cells derived from stem cells. Stem cells can be derived from bone marrow by mobilizing it and obtaining them in the peripheral blood. Leukoreduction by-products of adult blood donations are another source. Cord blood is another rich source of hemopoietic stem cells because the majority of the cells are discarded and only a few stem cells are used for stem cell transplantation.
Cord blood stem cells have been shown to have the ability to differentiate and proliferate. One unit of rhesus negative O blood can produce 10-75 various blood products. But cord blood is only available for major blood groups currently and it may not be used for patients with alloimmunization.
Unlimited Proliferation Potential
The capacity of producing red blood cells in primary stem cells is limited. Stem cells with unlimited proliferation potential are seen in embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). They have genomic instability which leads them to proliferate unlimitedly. This does not pose a safety concern as red blood cells don’t have a nucleus.
Human embryonic stem cells can generate an unlimited supply of rhesus negative O universal donor blood type. It has also shown promise in developing rare blood types which are currently under research.
Any donor can be used to produce iPSC and they can be used to generate phenotypically matched red cells theoretically. Is a challenge to identify donors for some rare blood groups. Also, these stem cells mostly produce fetal hemoglobin which has a reduced capacity in releasing oxygen than the adult form.
These 2 stem cell types have limited hematopoietic cell expansion than cord blood stem cells. Therefore they need amplification of the original stem cell types. When comparing the lifespan of the cells, iPSC fares better making it effective for procedures that involve genetic manipulation of hemopoietic stem cells for autologous transplantation in hematopoietic disorders. Addition of some drugs and modification of gene products can increase the proliferation capacity of stem cells. Currently, these procedures are expensive but scientists are doing researches to bring down the cost and make this new therapy affordable in the future.
- Kim, H. (2014). In-VitroStem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells for Transfusion: Are We There Yet?. Yonsei Medical Journal, 55(2), 304. http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.304
- Migliaccio, A., Whitsett, C., Papayannopoulou, T., & Sadelain, M. (2012). The Potential of Stem Cells as an In Vitro Source of Red Blood Cells for Transfusion. Cell Stem Cell, 10(2), 115-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.01.001
- Migliaccio, A. (2013). Stem cell-derived erythrocytes as upcoming players in blood transfusion. ISBT Science Series, 8(1), 165-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/voxs.12048